However, to become binding on the United States, the treaty had to be ratified by the Senate, which had already passed the non-binding byrd hagel resolution in 1997 expressing disapproval of any international agreement that did not commit developing countries to reducing emissions and would « seriously harm the U.S. economy. » The resolution was adopted 95 to 0. [99] Although the Clinton administration signed the treaty,[100] it was never submitted to the Senate for ratification. Emission limit values do not include emissions from international air and sea transport. [37] Although Belarus and Turkey are listed in Annex I to the Convention, they do not have emission targets, as they were not Parties to Appendix I at the time of the adoption of the Protocol. [36] Kazakhstan has no objective, but it has stated that it wishes to become a party to the Annex I Convention. [38] This political turnaround was met with a massive wave of criticism that was quickly picked up by the international media. The 2010 Cancún Agreements contain voluntary commitments by 76 developed and developing countries to control their greenhouse gas emissions. [145] In 2010, these 76 countries were responsible for 85% of annual global emissions. [145] [146] Japan`s national policy to achieve its Kyoto target includes the purchase of AAUs sold under GGI. [57] In 2010, Japan and Japanese companies were AAUs` main customers. [56]:53 As far as the international carbon market is concerned, trading in AAUs represents only a small share of the total market value. [56]:9 In 2010, 97% of trade on the international carbon market was determined by the European Union Emissions Trading System (ETS).

[56]:9 However, ETS regulated undertakings are not able to use AAUs to meet their emission ceilings. [58] However, the kyoto protocol`s goals are being questioned by climate change deniers, who condemn strong scientific evidence of human impact on climate change. A prominent scientist believes that these climate change deniers are « well » contravening Rousssau`s idea of the social contract, which is an implicit agreement between members of a society to coordinate efforts in the name of general social utility. . . .