The Kyoto Protocol entered into force in 2005. Since this year, each COP has also served as a « meeting of the parties » to the Kyoto Protocol, meaning that two large sets of parallel negotiations take place at each event. Two permanent subsidiary bodies, which serve in the negotiations of both the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol, meet at least twice a year, once at the COP/MOP. One of them focuses on the implementation of the agreements, while the other provides scientific and technological advice. However, China and India are now among the world`s largest annual emitters, along with the United States. Developed countries have argued that these countries must now do more to combat climate change. The un`s last annual climate change conference, COP25, was held in Madrid, Spain, in December 2019. COP25 is expected to be a stepping stone to the 2020 Climate Change Conference, which should allow countries to define new NCPDs and funding commitments (the COP26 conference, due to be held in November 2020, has been postponed to November 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic). New Zealand`s climate minister Tim Groser said the 15-year-old Kyoto Protocol was obsolete and New Zealand was « ahead of the curve » to find a replacement that would include developing countries.  Environmental non-profit organizations such as the World Wildlife Fund have criticized New Zealand`s decision to withdraw.  United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 1992.
The pioneering agreement [PDF], ratified by 197 countries, including the United States, was the first global agreement to explicitly address climate change. In fact, millions of Americans – especially children, the elderly, and the impoverished – are already suffering from the wrath of climate change. COP19 (Warsaw, 2013): The parties agreed on an « international loss and damage mechanism » that recognizes that adverse effects will be inevitable if containment is not rapid enough and countries are not able to adapt to the resulting climate change. . . .